Early research on transportation and schooling came in the era of desegregation. Some urbanites may still remember that busing formed a cornerstone of many districts’ school integration policies. Most studies on the short-term effects of busing found that it did not have a significant impact on student achievement, and that any effects on long-term status attainment were modest. Since Milliken II (1973) in which the Supreme Court turned away from large-scale involvement in district policies, and its simultaneous turn away from forced integration, the decline in district busing policies has also resulted in a decline of their study and any serious academic consideration of the role of transportation in student achievement and outcomes. Recent literature has focused on “active transportation,” or getting children to walk to school. But this is only an option for students who attend schools in their neighborhoods, and where those neighborhoods are safe.